BIOCEMENT

Sporosarcina pasteurii (formerly known as Bacillus pasteurii)

Sporosarcina pasteurii formerly known as Bacillus pasteurii from older taxonomies, is a bacterium with the ability to precipitate calcite and solidify sand given a calcium source and urea, through the process of microbiologically induced calcite precipitation or biological cementation. S. pasteurii has been proposed to be used as an ecologically sound biological construction material.

Another potential application is to solidify liquefiable soils in areas prone to earthquakes. BACTERIALLY-INDUCED CALCITE PRECIPITATION VIA UREOLYSIS
Possible applications
Desertification exemplified by sand dunes advancing on Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania Architecture student Magnus Larsson won the 2008 Holcim Award "Next Generation" first prize for region Middle East for his project "Dune anti-desertification architecture, Sokoto, Nigeria" and his design of a habitable wall.[2] Larssons also presented the proposal at TED.

Ginger Krieg Dosier's unique biotechnology start-up company, bioMason, in Raleigh, NC has developed a method of growing bricks from sporosarcina pasteurii and naturally abundant materials. In 2013 this company won the Cradle to Cradle Innovation Challenge (which included a prize of $125,000) and the Dutch Postcode Lottery Green Challenge (which included a prize of 500,000 euros).

RU
1. Fast sand lithification
If anyone thinks that rocks need millions of years to form, then experiments carried out by Murdoch University (Perth, Western Australia) researchers would surely overturn that idea That’s because the researchers have been able, with the help of added microbes, to turn sand into stone rapidly.1 The researchers found that the bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii2 can produce a cementing agent (dubbed “biocement”) that binds sand particles together.3 Starting with soft sand, and applying the bacterial treatment, “we found that it turns harder each time”, said Dr Ralf Cord-Ruwisch. “At the very end, it turned into something resembling marble more than sandstone.”

2. Growing bricks with bacteria - bioMASON
BioMASON has developed a process for growing bricks with bacteria in the hope of eventually reducing some of these emissions. They start with water and sand, then mix with bacteria. They feed the bacteria with nutrients and chemicals that form calcium carbonate by gluing sand into bricks.




3. bioMASON
3. Magnus Larsson turns dunes into architecture

Architecture student Magnus Larsson tells the details of his bold plan to transform the harsh Sahara desert through bacteria and unexpected building material - the sand itself.


“Next Generation”
1st prize 2008 Africa Middle East
4. Scientists turn sand to stone
The treatment alters the consistency of sand, doing anything from solidifying it slightly to changing it into a substance as hard as marble. It blends a calcium solution, bacteria and other inexpensive compounds, forcing the bacteria to form carbonate precipitates with the calcium. This creates calcium carbonate, also called calcite, identical to limestone.
5. From sand to rock—quickly!

If anyone thinks that rocks need millions of years to form, then experiments carried out by Murdoch University (Perth, Western Australia) researchers would surely overturn that idea. That’s because the researchers have been able, with the help of added microorganisms, to turn sand into stone rapidly. The researchers investigated microbes for their ability to produce a cementing agent (dubbed “biocement”) that would bind sand particles together, forming rock. The bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii (formerly known as Bacillus pasteurii) has an enzyme that enables it, in the right circumstances, to do just that. Its urease enzyme hydrolyses urea, and when this hydrolysis occurs in a calcium-rich environment, it generates binding calcite cement (calcium carbonate) as a by-product.




6. MICROBIAL MANUFACTURE
Stools made of sand and urine by Peter Trimble


Edinburgh College of Art student Peter Trimble has built a portable machine for manufacturing furniture from sand, urine and bacteria.
As part of his thesis project, Peter Trimble explored how bacteria and the urea found in urine might be used to create a reusable material that requires fewer resources than conventional concrete. His solution was Dupe, a portable device that injects a liquid solution into a mould full of sand that bonds the grains together, creating a material called biostone. This biodegradable substance has similar qualities to concrete, but can be broken up and used as a fertiliser for crops. It also produces no greenhouse gases and uses a widely available raw material. Trimble's machine is currently set up to produce a small stool and is made up of a pump from an old coffee machine, a mixer from an old blender, a mould, and a tank to hold liquid. The mould is filled with sand and sealed, while in a separate tank, the bacteria bacillus pasteurii - commonly found in soil - is grown in a nutrient broth to help it multiply.
7. A reliable bio-cement from bacteria has been developed.

A bacterial powder for quickly stabilizing gravel surfaces

The technology developed by specialists of the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne allows to strengthen sandy or gravel soil with the help of bacteria and a chain of chemical reactions. Researchers EPFL invented an organic, easy-to-use and cheap solution, which includes bacteria and urea. Two of these substances react and create calcite crystals that firmly bind gravel or sand particles. As a reaction initiating agent, scientists used the Sporosarcina pasteurii bacterium, which they lyophilized (dried and frozen). When applied to the ground, it binds sand and gravel, forming a protective adhesive layer. It serves as a link between urea, a soluble non-toxic molecule, and calcium, which are applied over the top. The bacterium destroys urea molecules, secreting the salt of carbonic acid, which binds to calcium and forms calcite crystals. They attach to the ground and increase in size and number - reaching in some cases several hundred micrometers in diameter. The enzyme urease, which also secrete bacteria, accelerates this process 1000 times, and for a few days or even hours everything is ready. Such a biocell was tested and showed good results. A small amount is sufficient for the gravel to withstand the shear stress caused by a significant earthquake. It also helps to strengthen the slopes. The composition can be manufactured on site, at ambient temperature and without unnecessary energy expenditure, writes Phys.org.

Patents
1. MICROBIAL BIOCEMENTATION
UNIV MURDOCH - AU
CORD-RUWISCH RALF [AU]; WHIFFIN VICKY [NL]
A method of forming a high strength cement in a permeable starting material, the method comprising the step of combining the starting material with effective amounts of a urease producing micro-organism; urea; and calcium ions and wherein the effective amount of the urease producing organism provides a urea hydrolysis rate, under standard conditions, of 0.5-50 mM urea hydrolysed.

Microbial CaCO3 precipitation for the production of biocement
Whiffin, Victoria S. (2004) Microbial CaCO3 precipitation for the production of biocement. PhD thesis, Murdoch University.
01Front.pdf
02Whole.pdf


2. HEALING AGENT IN CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, AND PROCESS FOR ITS PREPARATION

UNIV DELFT TECH [NL];
JONKERS HENDRIK MARIUS

Hendrik Marius Jonkers - Self-healing concrete containing bacteria
The present invention relates to healing agent in cement-based materials and structures, wherein said healing agent comprises organic compounds and/or bacteria-loaded porous particles, which porous particles comprise expanded clay- or sintered fly ash. Furthermore, said porous particles are intact spheres, broken or crushed particles derived from said intact spheres, having a specific density between 0.4 and 2 g cm-3. Finally, the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of the healing agent.

3. COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF BIOLOGICALLY CEMENTED STRUCTURES FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS


The invention is directed to kits, compositions, tools and methods for biologically cemented structures. More particularly, the invention is directed to materials and methods for the farming of bivalves, such as oysters and clams, and also other marine and fresh water invertebrates such as sponges, and other commercially worthwhile sessile organisms. The kits, compositions, tools and methods of the invention are also applied to erosion control of beaches and underwater surfaces, for the formation of foundations such as footings for pier supports, marine walls and other desirable structures.

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Links
Baalbek and the Western Wall construction technologies that we CAN'T repeat. What is found in Baalbek is generally difficult to fit into any scientific concept due to the extreme gigantism of stone blocks taken for the construction of structures in the so-called Roman style. The excavations of 2014, the results of which are not widely known, have revealed even more oddities that put official science in a very awkward position. It turned out that the construction of blocks weighing up to 1000 tons or more - was not a problem for the residents of this ancient city, while for our generation it was the work of extreme complexity.



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